1.1: An overview of anatomy and physiology (2023)

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    Learning objectives

    • Compare and contrast anatomy and physiology, including their specialties and methods of study.
    • Discuss the basic relationship between anatomy and physiology.

    MananatomyIt is a science that studies the structure of the body. Some of these structures are very small and can only be seen and analyzed under a microscope. Other larger structures are easy to see, operate, measure and weigh. The word "anatomy" comes from the Greek root meaning "to cut". Human anatomy was first studied by looking at the outside of the body and the soldiers' wounds and other injuries. Later, doctors were allowed to dissect the bodies of the dead to expand their knowledge. When the body is dissected, its structures are separated in order to observe the physical features and their interrelationships. The section is still used in medical schools, anatomy courses, and pathology laboratories. However, various imaging techniques have been developed to observe structures in living humans. These techniques allow doctors to visualize structures in a living organism, such as a cancerous tumor or a broken bone.

    Like most scientific disciplines, anatomy has areas of specialization.gruba anatomyIt is an examination of the largest body structures visible without magnification (Figure \(\PageIndex{1.a}\)). Macro means "big", which is why general anatomy is also called general anatomy. On the contrary, micro means "small" andanatomia mikroskopowais the study of structures that can only be seen with a microscope or other magnifying devices (Figure \(\PageIndex{1.b}\)). Microscopic anatomy includes cytology, the study of cells, and histology, the study of tissues. With the development of microscopic technology, anatomists have been able to look at ever-smaller structures in the body, from slices of large structures such as the heart to three-dimensional structures of large molecules in the body.

    1.1: An overview of anatomy and physiology (2)

    Anatomists take two general approaches to studying body structures: regional and systemic.regional anatomyIt is the study of the interrelationships of all the structures of a specific area of ​​the body, such as the abdomen. The study of regional anatomy helps us appreciate the interconnectedness of body structures, such as how muscles, nerves, blood vessels, and other structures work together to serve a specific area of ​​the body. Unlike,systemic anatomyIt is the study of the structures that make up a distinct body system, that is, a group of structures that work together to perform a single bodily function. For example, a systemic anatomical study of the muscular system would consider all the skeletal muscles of the body.

    While anatomy is about structure, physiology is about function. Manphysiologyis the scientific study of the chemistry and physics of the body's structures and the ways they work together to support vital functions. Much of the study of physiology focuses on the body's tendency toward homeostasis.HomeostazaIt is a state of stable internal conditions that living beings maintain. The science of physiology certainly involves observation, both with the naked eye and under a microscope, as well as manipulation and measurement. However, current advances in physiology often depend on carefully designed laboratory experiments that reveal the functions of the many structures and chemicals that make up the human body.

    Like anatomists, physiologists often specialize in a particular branch of physiology. For example, neurophysiology is the study of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves, and how they work together to perform functions as complex and diverse as seeing, moving, and thinking. Physiologists can work from the organ level (studying what different parts of the brain do, for example) to the molecular level (studying how an electrochemical signal travels along nerves, for example).

    Form is closely related to function in all living things. For example, the narrow lid flap can be zipped down to remove dust particles and almost instantly slid back up to be able to see again. At the microscopic level, the arrangement and function of the nerves and muscles that serve the eyelid allow for its rapid action and recoil. At a lower level of analysis, the function of these nerves and muscles also depends on the interaction of specific molecules and ions. Even the three-dimensional structure of some molecules is essential for their function.

    Your study of anatomy and physiology will make more sense if you constantly relate the shape of the structures you study to their function. In fact, studying anatomy without understanding body physiology can be a bit frustrating. For example, imagine trying to appreciate the unique arrangement of the bones in the human hand when you have no idea about the function of the hand. Fortunately, understanding how the human hand manipulates tools (from pens to cell phones) helps you appreciate the unique positioning of the thumb as opposed to four fingers, which gives the hand the structure to squeeze and grip objects. write the text. the news.

    Chapter overview

    Human anatomy is the scientific study of the structure of the body. In the past, anatomy was studied primarily by looking at lesions and later by dissecting anatomical structures from cadavers, but in the last century, computer-aided imaging techniques allowed physicians to look inside the living body. Human physiology is the scientific study of the chemistry and physics of body structures. Physiology explains how body structures work together to sustain life. It is difficult to study the structure (anatomy) without knowing the function (physiology). These two disciplines are often studied together because form and function are closely related in all living things.

    (Video) Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology: Crash Course Anatomy & Physiology #1

    review questions

    Q. Which of the following specialties could focus on all structures of the ankle and foot?

    A. anatomia mikroskopowa

    B. muscle anatomy

    C. regional anatomy

    D. systemic anatomy

    Answer: C

    (Video) Chapter 1 Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology

    Q. A scientist wants to study how the body uses food and fluids during a marathon race. Most likely, this scientist is ________.

    A. exercise physiologist

    B. microscopic anatomist

    C. regional physiologist

    D. systemic anatomist

    Answer: One

    critical thinking questions

    Q. Give at least three reasons why you should study anatomy and physiology.

    A. Understanding anatomy and physiology is essential to any healthcare career. It can also help you make decisions that promote your health, respond appropriately to signs of illness, understand health-related messages, and help you fulfill your role as a parent, spouse, partner, friend, colleague, and carer.

    (Video) CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology

    Q. Who would find it easier to appreciate the structural features of the human heart: an alien who lands on Earth, abducts a human and dissects his heart, or a student of anatomy and physiology who dissects a heart on his own body? first day of class? Because?

    Answer: It will be easier for the student to appreciate the structures revealed during the dissection. Although the student has not yet been introduced to the work of the heart and blood vessels in her classes, she has experienced his heartbeat at every moment of her life, probably felt his pulse, and probably has at least a basic knowledge of the role of the heart and blood vessels. blood vessels. heart that pumps blood throughout the body. This understanding of the function of the heart (physiology) would be helpful in his research on the shape of the heart (anatomy).



    The science that studies the shape and composition of body structures.

    gruba anatomy

    examination of the largest structures of the body, usually with the naked eye; It also refers to general anatomy.



    The steady state of the body systems that sustain living organisms.

    anatomia mikroskopowa

    examination of very small body structures under magnification


    The science that studies the chemistry, biochemistry, and physics of bodily functions.

    regional anatomy

    The study of structures that affect specific areas of the body.

    systemic anatomy

    study of the structures that make up specific body systems


    1.1: An overview of anatomy and physiology? ›

    Whereas anatomy is about structure, physiology is about function. Human physiology is the scientific study of the chemistry and physics of the structures of the body and the ways in which they work together to support the functions of life.

    Is anatomy and physiology 1 hard? ›

    Is Anatomy and Physiology Hard? This is one of the most difficult prerequisite classes, especially for pre-health and nursing students. To comprehend and retain the vast amount of knowledge in this subject will require a lot of work. Before you submit your application, you ought to be confident and ace in a&p class.

    What is the basic overview of anatomy? ›

    anatomy, a field in the biological sciences concerned with the identification and description of the body structures of living things. Gross anatomy involves the study of major body structures by dissection and observation and in its narrowest sense is concerned only with the human body.

    What are the 5 basic principles of anatomy and physiology? ›

    Answer and Explanation:

    Structural and functional core principles in anatomy and physiology are homeostasis, cell to cell communication, interdependence, cell membrane, and flow down gradients. Homeostasis - Body ability to maintain the face of changing conditions and stable internal environment within normal range.

    What is the difference between A&P 1 and 2? ›

    In our classes A&P I covered the basic functions of the body and systems and II covered those symptoms more in depth.

    How to prepare for anatomy and physiology 1? ›

    Study Tips to Help You Ace Anatomy & Physiology
    1. Read before you go to class.
    2. Show up to class and take good notes.
    3. Rote memorization for definitions. ...
    4. Make sure to repeat them out loud. ...
    5. Print diagrams and complete them over and over again. ...
    6. Incorporate things you've learned into your daily conversations.

    How many people fail anatomy the first time? ›

    In fact, a new report from the Human Anatomy & Physiology Society found that nationwide, A&P attrition rates are between thirty and forty percent. This is a troubling statistic, because A&P is also foundational to multiple degree paths.

    What is the hardest class to take in college? ›

    Here 12 Of The Toughest College Classes:
    • Organic Chemistry. Organic chemistry is the toughest college class. ...
    • Linguistics. Linguistics is the toughest college class. ...
    • Economics. Economics is also toughest college class. ...
    • Anatomy. ...
    • Calculus. ...
    • Quantum Mechanics / Physics. ...
    • Philosophy / Metaphysics. ...
    • Thermodynamics.
    Apr 19, 2023

    Is anatomy one of the hardest college classes? ›

    Anatomy and Physiology is tough because it involves a lot of memorization. You'll need to know tons of anatomical jargon, and understand the complex functions of different parts of the human body.

    What are the 5 basic anatomy? ›

    On the outside human anatomy consists of the five basic parts, the head, neck, torso, arms and legs. However, beneath the skin there are countless biological and chemical interactions that keep the human body machine ticking over.

    What are the 5 basic parts of anatomy? ›

    The five regions of the body are the head, neck, torso, upper extremities, and lower extremities. The body is also divided by three imaginary planes known as the sagittal plane, coronal plane, and transverse plane. The sagittal plane runs vertically and divides the body into right and left portions.

    What are the 5 branches of anatomy? ›

    Branches of human anatomy
    • Gross anatomy- systemic or region-wise study of human body parts and organs. Gross anatomy encompasses cadaveric anatomy and osteology.
    • Microscopic anatomy/histology.
    • Cell biology (Cytology) & cytogenetics.
    • Surface anatomy.
    • Radiological anatomy.
    • Developmental anatomy/embryology.

    What are the 8 systems of anatomy? ›

    They are Integumentary System, Skeletal System, Muscular System, Nervous System, Endocrine System, Cardiovascular System, Lymphatic System, Respiratory System, Digestive System, Urinary System, and Reproductive System (Female and Male).

    What are the 10 characteristics of life anatomy and physiology? ›

    Properties of Life. All living organisms share several key characteristics or functions: order, sensitivity or response to the environment, reproduction, adaptation, growth and development, regulation, homeostasis, energy processing, and evolution.

    What are the three types of anatomy and physiology? ›

    Key Points. Gross anatomy is subdivided into surface anatomy (the external body), regional anatomy (specific regions of the body), and systemic anatomy (specific organ systems).

    Is anatomy and physiology 1 or 2 harder? ›

    I found A&P II to be easier and more interesting because it focused more on the functions of the body systems. If you were able to get a B in a Summer session, you should be okay for a 16 week class.

    What are the topics in human anatomy 1? ›

    • 3.1 General anatomy.
    • 3.2 Bones.
    • 3.3 Joints.
    • 3.4 Muscles.
    • 3.5 Alimentary system.
    • 3.6 Respiratory system.
    • 3.7 Thoracic cavity.
    • 3.8 Urinary system.

    What chapters does anatomy and physiology 1 cover? ›

    Anatomy & Physiology
    • Chapter 1. An Introduction to the Human Body. ...
    • Chapter 2. The Chemical Level of Organization. ...
    • Chapter 3. The Cellular Level of Organization. ...
    • Chapter 4. The Tissue Level of Organization. ...
    • Chapter 5. The Integumentary System. ...
    • Chapter 6. Bone Tissue and the Skeletal System. ...
    • Chapter 7. Axial Skeleton. ...
    • Chapter 8.

    What are the subjects in anatomy 1? ›

    During the course of study, we will investigate the following topics and systems: Orientation of the Body, Chemistry of Life, Cellular Structure and Function, Histology, Integumentary, Skeletal, Muscular, Nervous, Special Senses, Endocrine, Blood, Cardiovascular, Lymphatic, Respiratory, Digestive, Urinary, and ...


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